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Recommended reading
The following are recommendations - excellent background material (and interesting reading, whether you are doing this for grades or not).
Electronic material
Some of the material referenced under the invididual classes will be made available in Blackboard, some through the Norwegian School of Management library.  The following web sites are good sources for information on new technology, technology challenges, and entertaining viewpoints:
Classroom discussion
This is a course at the Master level, meaning that there is a joint responsibility between the instructor and the student for the learning reached.  Classroom discussion is the main interaction between teacher and students in this course. It is crucial both for the students' understanding and the quality of the discussion that the students are intimately familiar with the contents of the material before the lecture begins.  When the assigned material contains a case, every student will be expected to be able to give a short (3-5 minute) presentation of the case company, as well as discuss strategic and technological issues of importance, at each class.

Grading
Grades are determined as follows:

Detailed seminar plan
The right to make changes at any time is most explicitly reserved....
Date/lecturer Topic & study questions Preparation
1
Introduction:
Sandvika, Auditorium 4
1200 - 1415
Monday, August 25

Espen Andersen

Introduction, course overview, work processes, administrivia, course objectives. What difference does technology make?

Study questions:
1. Marshall McLuhan, a writer on the impact of communications technology on our society and behaviour, said "We shape our tools, and our tools shape us."  What does this mean - and how does it impact management?
2. What issues in technology management and technology strategy do you consider important, and why?

Read and be prepared to discuss:
  • Carr, N. G. (2003). "IT Doesn't Matter." Harvard Business Review(May): 41-49. (In Blackboard, along with the ensuing debate about the article.)
2
What really is technology?
Sandvika, Auditorium 4
0830 - 1115
Monday, September 1

Espen Andersen

Understanding technology culture and technology evolution
In this class, we will study the evolution of digital technology and the role of culture, metaphors, and other images of technology.

Study questions:
1. What is an Eloi? A Morlok?
2. Whatever happened to BeOS? Why?
3. What is the technosphere?  How can you make it thicker?
4. Create your own question....
Read and be prepared to discuss:
  • Stephenson, N. (1999). In the Beginning....Was the Command Line. New York, Avon Books.  Available for free here.  Excellent treatise on what technology really means. If you understand and like this article, then you really grok tech.
  • If you are so inclined, take a look at Sherman, S. P. (1984). "Microsoft's drive to dominate software." Fortune (January 23): 82-90. (In Blackboard)
Further reading (for the especially interested): In your spare time:

3
Systems development
Sandvika, Auditorium 3
1230 - 1445
Monday, September 8

Espen Andersen

Systems development - creating programs and applications.
In this class, we will read up on the development of computer programs and systems, and try to understand how changes in technologies and methodologies have changed what is easy and what is difficult.

1. What is a "waterfall" methodology and what are its benefits and drawbacks?
2. What is object oriented programming and what are its benefits and drawbacks?
3. How does the way the AAs Dispatching system was created differ from most system projects?
4. What are the advances and drawbacks to using an ERP package such as SAP rather than developing your own systems?
5. What is GPL?  Open Source?  Why is it important (if you think it is)

 

Read and be prepared to discuss:
  • Andersen, E. and B. R. Konsynski (1991). What the Hell is OOPS, Anyway? Technical note. Boston, MA, Harvard Business School. (Available from Eli Steller).
  • Chapters 7 and 12 of Laudon & Laudon, Management Information Systems, Prentice-Hall, 6. edition.  (Available from Eli Steller)
  • Andersen, E. and F. W. McFarlan (1994). American Airlines: Object Oriented Flight Dispatching Systems. Boston, MA, Harvard Business School.  (Available from Eli Steller).
  • Take a glance at Eric Raymond: The Cathedral and the Bazaar, First Monday, 3 (3).  (Or, better yet, look at the latest version, evolving in true open source style.)  Excellent piece on how open source development works, when it works - and how "given enough eyeballs, all problems are shallow."
  • My rants on technology virgins and lack of electronic integration.
4
Naked Objects
Sandvika, Auditorium 3
1200 - 1415
Monday, September 15

Richard Pawson

Espen Andersen
Naked objects....
..is an approach to systems design and development pioneered by Richard Pawson based on his concept of expressive systems.  The session will explore the principles behind this highly innovative technology, give the students some insights into the challenges of marketing ideas and their instantiations in a worled of Open Source and intellectual property laws - and expose you to a world class presenter to executive and student audiences.
Study questions:

1. What is behavioral completeness and why is it important?
2. What problems is the Naked Object approach designed to address?
3. How can you make money (in the long run) if you are making your source code available for free?
4. Why do we have copyright? How can you protect it?
5. How is the DSCFA system different from other computer systems?  What are the benefits? Drawbacks?


  • Read and be prepared to discuss:
    • Read at least up to p.44 in Richard Pawson's Expressive
      Systems: A manifesto for radical business software, CSC 2000 (in Blackboard).
    • Read about the DSCFA system and its object model.
    Further reading:
    • You may want to study the rest of Richard Pawson and Robert Matthews' book Naked Objects.  The full text of the book is available on the net, as well as some PDF sample pages.  And you can, of course, download the programs and try a bit of naked objects programming yourself....
    5
    Organizing product development
    Sandvika, Auditorium 4
    1200 - 1415
    Monday, September 22



    Espen Andersen

    Creating products and projects - how to organize and compete on product development.
    In this class, we will read some articles on industrial production and product development, trying to understand what makes for rapid and successful product development.  Mostly, we will discuss the results from Wheelwright, Clark and Fujimoto's work on the international car industry.

    1.  What is the competitive impact of having a short development cycle in the car manufacturing industry?
    2. What is a "platform" product, and what is it important?  Can you think of examples of platform products?
    3. For which companies is this important?  Have you noticed companies that seem to be good at rapid product development and deployment in other industries?

    Read and be prepared to discuss:
    • Wheelwright, S. C. and K. B. Clark (1992). "Organizing and Leading "Heavyweight" Development Teams." California Management Review 92(34): 9-29. (In Blackboard).
    • Clark, K. B. and T. Fujimoto (1990). "The Power of Product Integrity." Harvard Business Review (November-December): 107-118.  (In Blackboard).
    • Wheelwright, S. C. and K. B. Clark (1992). "Competing through development capability in a manufacturing-based organization." Business Horizons 35(4): 29-44.  (In Blackboard).
    • Wheelwright, S. C. and K. B. Clark (1992). "Creating Project Plans to Focus Product Development." Harvard Business Review (March-April): 2-14.  (In Blackboard). 
    Further reading for the specially interested:
    • Wheelwright, S. and K. Clark (1992). Revolutionizing Product Development. New York, Free Press.
    6
    Solving the spam problem
    Sandvika, Auditorium 4
    1200 - 1415
    Monday, September 29

    Espen Andersen

    Solving a problem (and making some money?)
    In this class, we will pick up off the discussions introduced in lecture 2 and 4, and start looking at a particular problem - spam - and how we can solve it.  To do this, we will read articles on the problem of Spam (unsolicited commercial email) and then discuss how it can be solved - taking the perspective of an entrepreneur, a regulator, and an existing software or internet services provider.
    Read and be prepared to discuss:
    • For this discussion, I will expect you to find literature yourself - but here are some hints: Lawrence Lessig , spamhaus.org, Paul Graham, Slashdot.org, honeypot, Ronald Scelson, Adam Ralsky, Laura Betterly, this link on who profits, and on and on and on ....
    • Premkumar, G. P. (2003). "Alternate Distribution Strategies for Digital Music." Communications of the ACM 46(9): 89-95. (In Blackboard).  Good article on various models of digital music distribution.
    Further reading (for the especially interested):
    • Well, do some more searching.....
    7
    Disruptive technologies - solid state lightning and fuel cells
    Sandvika, Auditorium 4
    1200 - 1415
    Monday, October 6

    Espen Andersen

    In this class, we will look at two technologies - solid state lightning and portable fuel cells - and try to decide what the likely market impact of them will be.

    Things to consider before class:
    1.  Who are the customers of these two technologies and in what way are the customers different than customers of the currently dominant technology?
    2. What further technological evolution needs to take place for these technologies to replace the currently dominant technolgies?
    3. Who will be the providers of the new technology - and what will be the business model?

    Read and be prepared to discuss:
    • Term paper on solid state lighting by Tikhon Oleinikov and Laura Repsaite. (In Blackboard)
    • Prabakaran, D. (2003). "Beyond the Battery." BYTE (September). (In Blackboard).
    • Christensen, C. M., M. Raynor, et al. (2001). "Skate to Where the Money Will Be." Harvard Business Review(November): 73-81.  (In Blackboard).
    • Reread some of the more relevant Utterback chapters.
    For the specially interested:
    8
    Growing and maturing the technical company
    Sandvika, Auditorium 4
    1200 - 1415
    Monday, October 13
    Grim Gjønnes, Vice President of Sales
    Trolltech

    Espen Andersen

    In this class, we will discuss Trolltech, a small (70 employees) Norwegian software company with a stellar international reputation and an interesting business model.

    Study questions:
    1. What are Trolltech's core markets, and how are they addressing them?
    2. Which factors have made Trolltech successful so far?
    3. How should they go forward?  What should be their sources of growth and profitability?

    Read and be prepared to discuss:
    • Article on Trolltech (In Blackboard)
    • Greiner, L. E. (1972). "Evolution and Revolution as Organizations Grow." Harvard Business Review (July-August): 37-46. (In Blackboard).
    • Chapter 12, "On the Beach", from Cringely, R. X. (1992). Accidental Empires. Harmonsworth, Middlesex, England, Penguin Books. (In Blackboard).
    Further reading (for the specially interested).

    9
    Competition and externalities
    Sandvika, Auditorium 4
    1200 - 1415
    Monday, October 20

    Øystein Fjeldstad

    Espen Andersen

    In this class we will take a deep look externalities and how they work, examining perhaps the most well known case of them all: Microsoft and how this company has used externalities to their advantage.

    Study questions:
    1.
    What are the implications of network externalities for company strategy?
    2. What are the implications of network externalities for regulators - in particulary for regulation of business competition?
    3. Which elements of  Microsoft's strategy has created and sustained network externalitites?

     
    Read and be prepared to discuss:
    • Katz, M. L. and C. Shapiro (1994). "Systems competition and network effects." Journal of Economic Perspectives 8(2): 93-115. (In Blackboard.)
    • Gilbert, R. J. and M. L. Katz (2001). "An Economist's Guide to U.S. v. Microsoft." Journal of Economic Perspectives 15 (2): 25-44. (In Blackboard).
    • You may want to revisit an article from the first TechStrat course: Sherman, S. P. (1984). "Microsoft's drive to dominate software." Fortune (January 23): 82-90., to get an impression of how the whole thing started. (In Blackboard).
    Further reading for the specially interested
    • The obvious choise is Shapiro, C. and H. R. Varian (1999). Information Rules: A Strategic Guide to the Network Economy. Boston, MA, Harvard Business School Press.  Cannot be read and re-read too often.
    In your spare time:
    • Gladwell, M. (2000). The Tipping Point. London, Abacus. Funny and instructive on how fashions and crowd behavior evolves, examples include AIDS, Hush Puppies, suicides, syphilis and crime in New York. Key concepts such as "The Law of the Few", "The Stickiness Factor" and " The Power of Context".
    10
    Serious e-Commerce
    Sandvika, Classroom U5
    0830 - 1115
    Thursday, October 30

    Note changed date, time and venue!!!!!!

    Peder Inge Furseth

    Espen Andersen


    In this lecture, we will look at retail companies that take e-Commerce seriously, and who are able to integrate use of the Internet and e-Commerce into an already existing - and successful - business model.  Examples include Gap and Macy's.  Peder Inge Furseth is an Associate Professor at NSM and an expert in electronic retailing, who has conducted research on this in cooperation with people at the Haas School of Business, Berkeley University.

    Study questions:
    1 What is the importance of a transactional website for a company now and in the near future?
    2 How well developed should the transactional website be before it is launched?
    3 Will pure plays possibly be more profitable than the traditional click-and-mortars?

    Read and be prepared to discuss:
    • Chapter 1 in Steve Elliott (ed.): Electronic Commerce: B2C Strategies and Models, 2002
      (In Blackboard)
    • You should check out these webpages:
      www.gap.com, www.macys.com, www.norli.no, www.vinmonopolet.no, www.xxl.no
    • The e-commerce research project at BI: www.bi.no/b2c (in Norwegian only)
    11
    Strategic Process
    Sandvika, Auditorium 4
    1200 - 1415
    Monday, November 3

    Mark Kriger

    Espen Andersen
    Strategic Process and Micro-Strategizing in High Tech Environments
    In this session, Mark Kriger will discuss the process of creating and applying strategy in a high-tech environment, as exemplified by the Handspring case.  Please prepare the case carefully and answer the four study questions below.  Then read the article 'What (Really) Is Strategic Process' and apply the figure and content of the article to the case.
    1. Rank order (from 1 to n) the importance of Handspring's various partnerships. What criteria did you use to rank the partnerships and why?  How important were the relationships of Handspring's founders to their ability to form partnerships?  With respect to the form and use of partnerships, how was Handspring's position different from other startups? What are some of the detrimental aspects of partnerships.  How should a start-up avoid them?
    2. What were the pros and cons to Handspring of licensing Palm's OS? Should Handspring have pursued parallel paths by developing their own OS, in addition to licensing Palm's? Were there special risks in the relationship with Palm? If so, what were they?
    3. If all Handspring management had to do was execute a proven plan, why didn't the founders raise money from those VC firms that would have given them the most favorable financial terms?
    4. Donna is Donna, you are not. Assuming your goal is to build a successful start-up reliant on partnerships, what career choices will you  make to develop your partnering skills? What are the skills you need and where will you get them?
    Read and be prepared to discuss:
    • Kriger, Mark (2003): "What (Really) Is Strategic Process", draft paper (In Blackboard)
    • Johnson, G., L. Melin, et al. (2003). "Guest Editor's Introduction: Micro Strategy and Strategizing: Towards an Activity-Based View." Journal of Management Studies 40(1): 3-22. (In Blackboard).
    • Case: Handspring Partnerships (2001), will be distributed on paper.
    • FLASH NEWS: Palm is buying Handspring October 30, combining the hardware operations into PalmOne and spinning out a software company, PalmSource, to market the Palm OS.  Discussion in The Register.
    12
    Disruptive strategies
    Sandvika, Auditorium 4
    1200 - 1415
    Monday, November 10

    Espen Andersen
    Creating disruptive strategies
    In this session, we will further discuss the concept of disruptive technologies and strategies, and try to apply what we know to one particular company, MySQL.

    Study questions:
    • what jobs are MySQL's customers hiring MySQL to do?
    • what customers do MySQL have and what do they do for them?
    • what is the GPL license?  What are the risks and rewards of using it for MySQL? For MySQL customers?
    • how should MySQL grow and prosper? What should be their goal?
    Read and be prepared to discuss:
    • Chapter 2 and 3 from Christensen & Raynor: The Innovator's Solution (2003)  (In Blackboard)
    • Christensen, C. M. and M. E. Raynor (2003). "Why Hard-nosed Executives Should Care about Management Theory." Harvard Business Review (September): 67-74. (In Blackboard) (This is an expanded version of chapter 1 in their book.)
    • Check out this interview with Clayton Christensen in Fast Company
    • Case: MySQL, a Swedish company with an Open Source philosophy.  Check out their web page and any article you can find on them.
    Further reading for the specially interested:
    • I wholeheartedly (again) recommend buying and inhaling The Innovator's Solution, which tries to provide strategies for either countering disruptive technologies or positioning your product or service so it becomes one.  Without hiding how difficult this is, this book contains lessons that any budding manager in a technology-rich environment (and which isn't, I say) should take to heart.
    13
    Term paper presentations
    Sandvika, Auditorium 4
    1200 - 1415
    Monday, November 17

    Espen Andersen
    In this final session, you will present your term papers and have them criticized by fellow students and the instructor.  You may use Powerpoint and similar technologies, or you could do it with a synopsis and some discussion, or use some other technique.

    Please prepare and be ready to present:
    • an abstract and outline of your paper, with answers to these questions:
      • what is the question to which your paper is the answer?
      • what is the audience for your paper?
      • what will the paper look like?
      • what learning from the course will you use?
      • what will you have learned from writing the paper?
      • what about his paper will keep you awake at night?

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